Volume 15, Issue 43 (4-2024)                   rap 2024, 15(43): 75-85 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Shokrani F, Daneshyar M, Ansari Z, mirghelenj S A. (2024). Effects of In ovo Injection of L-carnitine and Betaine on Hatchability, Blood Metabolites Concentration, Carcass Characteristics, Expression of Some Growth Associated Genes and Development of One Day Old Chicks. rap. 15(43), 75-85. doi:10.61186/rap.15.43.75
URL: http://rap.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-1374-en.html
Urmia University
Abstract:   (275 Views)
Extended Abstract
Introduction and Objective: Inovo feeding the nutrients into the egg can reduce the limitation of nutrients inside the egg and hence improve the embryo quality and chick growth. Therefore, a lot of attention should be paid to the growth and development of the embryo in order to access the maximum performance after hatch. Furthermore, providing nutrients to the embryo (embryo nutrition) may be used to improve growth performance and also overcome the development limitations in the late embryonic period and early life of the chick. Providing some nutrients during the incubation period can improve the metabolism in chick embryos and have beneficial effects on performance after hatching period. L-carnitine is a dipolar compound which is soluble in water and it’s in ovo injection may have beneficial effects for chickens because of the limited capacity of young chickens to synthesize L-carnitine. Betaine is a derivative of amino acids (Trimethylglycine) and is classified as a methyl group donor and its beneficial effects on performance of the different birds have been reported in many studies. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of inovo feeding of L-carnitine and betaine alone or together on hatchability, carcass traits (drumstick, breast, liver and egg yolk), blood indices (cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein) and expression of some growth associated genes (liver IGF-1 and muscle MyoD and MyF5) and development in chicks.
Material and Methods: A total of 630 fertile eggs (Ross 308 strain form 34-wk-old breeder flock) were assigned randomly to six treatments with five replicates and 21 eggs per replicate. The mean weight of the eggs was 56.64 ± 1.18. Treatments included control group (non-injected), dry punch, physiological saline injection (100 µL), in ovo injection of L-carnitine (8 mg), in ovo injection of betaine (2.5 mg) and in ovo injection of both L-carnitine and betaine (8 mg L-carnitine + 2.5 mg betaine). Treatment solutions were injected into the amniotic sac on day 14 of incubation. 100 µL of injection solution was injected with an insulin syringe in the upper third of the egg with an injection depth of 19 mm. During the injection, the temperature of the injection solution was 30°C and environment temperature was 35°C which was performed in 15 minutes for each treatment. After the injection, the injection site was blocked. The eggs were placed in the incubator (37.5 C and 61% humidity). Infertile eggs and the eggs with a dead embryo were also transferred to the laboratory for examination of embryonic mortality. After hatching, the chicks were weighed with a digital scale and an accuracy of 0.01 g and the weight after hatch was determined. Then, two chicks per each replicate were selected and slaughtered to study the carcass traits (drumstick, breast, liver and egg yolk). Blood was taken from neck to determine the blood parameters (cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein). Then the liver and breast muscle of the slaughtered one day old chicks were taken to determine the relative genes expression. Relative gene expressions were measured by Real-Time PCR using gene specific primers. The data obtained from the gene expression were analyzed by the Livak method. The remaining chickens were reared for seven days and weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were determined. Data were analyzed using the general Linear Model procedures of SAS 9.1.
Results: The results of this study showed that in ovo injection of 8 mg L-carnitine decreased the mortality and increased the hatchability (P<0.05). Injection of 2.5 mg betaine increased the mortality of embryos during the final stage of incubation and decreased the percentage of hatched chicks (P<0.05). Injection of L-carnitine and betaine alone and in combination decreased the blood triglyceride and cholesterol concentration in serum (P<0.05), while it had no effect on total protein concentration in blood (P>0.05). In ovo injection of L-carnitine and betaine alone or in combination increased the percentage of breast and thigh newly hatched chicks (P<0.05). Injection of L-carnitine and betaine had no effect on the weights of yolk sac and liver (P>0.05). Injection of L-carnitine and betaine and their combination had no effect on the functional characteristics of chickens at 7 days of age (P>0.05). Furthermore, L-carnitine and betaine alone or in combination increased the relative expression of IGF-1 gene in liver and MyoD and MyF5 genes in breast muscle of hatched chicks (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The results of this research showed that L-carnitine may reduce the mortality of embryos in the incubation stage by reducing oxidative stress and thus increases the hatching rate.Totally, the results of current experiment indicated that in ovo injection of L-carnitine and betaine can stimulate the secretion of IGF-1 and consequently increase the expression of muscle regulatory genes (MyoD, MyF5) and hence improved the proliferation and maturation of satellite cells in the embryonic stage. Therefore, L-carnitine and betaine can be recognized as a positive stimulus of IGF-1 signaling pathway in order to stimulate muscle growth and chicken growth.

 
Full-Text [PDF 1328 kb]   (90 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: تغذیه طیور
Received: 2023/04/8 | Revised: 2024/04/27 | Accepted: 2023/12/3 | Published: 2024/04/27

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Research On Animal Production

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb