دوره 8، شماره 15 - ( بهار 1396 )                   جلد 8 شماره 15 صفحات 58-67 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها


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Effects of Different Level of Gamma Irradiation on Barley and Soybean Seeds on Rumen Degradation Rate and Performance of Lambs. rap. 2017; 8 (15) :58-67
URL: http://rap.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-757-fa.html
قربانی بهنام، قورچی تقی، شورنگ پروین، زره داران سعید. بررسی روند تجزیه‌پذیری دانه جو و سویای پرتوتابی شده با سطوح مختلف پرتو گاما و اثر آنها در عملکرد پرواری بره‌ها . پژوهشهاي توليدات دامي. 1396; 8 (15) :58-67

URL: http://rap.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-757-fa.html


دانش‌آموخته دکتری
چکیده:   (540 مشاهده)

     به­منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف پرتوتابی گاما بر روند تجزیه­پذیری دانه جو و سویا و نیز استفاده آنها در جیره بره­های پرواری، این مطالعه در قالب دو آزمایش انجام شد. در آزمایش اول دو سطح پرتوتابی گاما (50 و 75 کیلوگری) روی دانه جو و سویا اعمال و روند تجزیه­پذیری آنها در زمان­های مختلف انکوباسیون در شکمبه اندازه­گیری شد. داده­های حاصل از آزمایش اول نشان داد که پرتوتابی گاما موجب افزایش بخش تند تجزیه و کند تجزیه ماده خشک دانه جو شد، ولیکن بخش تند تجزیه پروتئین دانه جو را کاهش و بخش کند تجزیه را افزایش داد (05/0>p). پرتوتابی گاما روی دانه سویا موجب کاهش بخش تند تجزیه پروتئین و ماده خشک دانه سویا و افزایش بخش کند تجزیه پروتئین و ماده خشک دانه سویا شد (05/0>p). آزمایش دوم به منظور ارزیابی علمکرد بره­های پرواری در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 3 تیمار (جیره غذایی) و 6 تکرار روی بره­های نر نژاد دالاق انجام شد. تیمارهای این مطالعه شامل دانه­های جو و سویای پرتوتابی نشده (شاهد)، پرتوتابی شده با دزهای 50 و 75 کیلوگری بودند. نمونه­گیری از مدفوع به­منظور تعیین قابلیت هضم خوراک انجام شد. پس از طی دوره پروار از هر تیمار 3 بره کشتار و اعضای داخلی آنها به طور جداگانه توزین شد. داده­های حاصل از آزمایش توسط نرم­افزار SAS مورد آنالیز قرار گرفت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس در این مطالعه نشان داد پرتوتابی به طور معنی­داری وزن­گیری در طول دوره پروار را افزایش داد (05/0>p).  پرتوتابی با دز 75 کیلوگری به طور معنی­داری باعث بهبود ضریب تبدیل و قابلیت هضم خوراک شد (05/0>p). با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده در این مطالعه می­توان استفاده از پرتوتابی را برای فرآوری منابع پروتئینی با ارزش به منظورعبوری کردن آنها و نیز بر منابع غلات به­منظور افزایش بهره­گیری از آنها توصیه نمود. 

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نوع مطالعه: پژوهشي | موضوع مقاله: تخصصي

فهرست منابع
1. Akbarian, A., G.R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, P. Shawrang and M. Dehghan-banadaki. 2009. Performance and physiological responses of holstein lactating cows to whole soybean treated with physical processing. Master of Science thesis of industrial university of Isfahan. 126 pp (In Persian).
2. Al-Masri, M.R. 1999. In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 50: 295-301. [DOI:10.1016/S0969-8043(98)00013-X]
3. Arieli, A., I. Bruckental, O. Kedar and D. Sklan. 1995. In Sacco disappearance of starch nitrogen and fat in processed grains. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 51: 287-295. [DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(94)00693-4]
4. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis (15th edition). Association of official. Analytical chemists, Arlington, VA.
5. Ciesla, K. 2003. Gamma irradiation influence on wheat flour gelatinization. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 74: 254-259. [DOI:10.1023/A:1026302508712]
6. Ciesla, K., E. Gwardys and T. 'Zoltowski. 1991. Changes of relative crystallinity of potato starch under gamma irradiation. Starch/Starke, 43: 251-253. [DOI:10.1002/star.19910430702]
7. Cone, J.W., W. Cline-Theil, A. Malestein and A.T. Van't Klooster. 1989. Degradation of starch by incubation with rumen fluid. A comparison of different starch source. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 49: 173-183. [DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2740490206]
8. Cooper, R.J., C.T. Milton, T.J. Klopfenstein and D.J. Jordon. 2002. Effect of corn processing on degradable intake protein requirement of finishing cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 80: 242-247. [DOI:10.2527/2002.801242x]
9. Cornell, H.J., A.W. Hoveling, A. Chryss and M. Rogers. 1994. Particle size distribution in wheat starch and its importance in processing. Starch, 46: 203-207. [DOI:10.1002/star.19940460602]
10. Daghir, N.J., J.L. Sell and G.G. Mateos. 1983. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of lentil (Lens cilinaris) for chicks. Nutrition Reports International, 27: 1087-1093.
11. Grummer, R.R., M.L. Luck and J.A. Barmore. 1994. Lactational performance of dairy cows fed soybean with or without animal byproduct protein or roasted soybean. Journal of Dairy Science, 77: 1354-1359. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77074-0]
12. Gulati, S.K., M.R. Garg and T.W. Scott. 2005. Rumen protected protein and fat produced from oilseeds and/or meals by formaldehyde treatment; their role in ruminant production and product quality; a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 45: 1189-1203. [DOI:10.1071/EA04131]
13. Holm, N.W and R.J. Berry. 1970. Manual on radiation dosimetry. Dekker, New York, USA.
14. Jaffari-Foroshani, M. 2010. Effects of electron beam irradiation on DM and CP degradation rate of soybean and canola meal and performance of Holstein dairy cows. M.Sc. thesis of industrial university of Isfahan, 70 pp (In Persian).
15. Javaid, A., M.A. Shahzad, M. Nisa and M. Sarwar. 2011. Ruminal dynamics of ad libitum feeding in buffalo bulls receiving different level of rumen degradable protein. Livestock Science, 135: 98-102. [DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.133]
16. Joseph, A. and M. Dikshit. 1993. Effect of irradiation on the proteinase inhibitor activity and digestibility (in vitro) of safflower oilcake. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society, 70: 935-937. [DOI:10.1007/BF02545359]
17. Lawton, E.J., W.D. Bellamy, R.E. Hungate, M.P. Bryant and E. Hall. 1951. Some effects of high velocity electrons on wood. Science, 113: 380-382. [DOI:10.1126/science.113.2936.380]
18. Lee, Y.S., S.H. Oh, J.W. Lee, J.H. Kim, D.S. Kim and M.W. Byun. 2003. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical and textural properties of starches. Food Science and Biotechnology, 12: 508-512.
19. Malcom, K.J. and H.E. Kiesling. 1993. Dry matter disappearance and gelatinization of grains as influenced by processing and conditioning. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 40: 321-330. [DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(93)90061-N]
20. Mani, V. and P. Chandra. 2002. Effect of different levels of irradiation of soybean in Sacco DM and CP degradability of DM and CP. Indian Journal Animal Nutrition, 12: 51-56.
21. Mani, V. and P. Chandra. 2003. Effect of feeding irradiated soybean on nutrient intake, digestibility and N-balance in goats. Small Ruminant Research, 48: 77-81. [DOI:10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00249-3]
22. McMannus, W.R., L. Manta, J.D. McFarlane and A.C. Gray. 1972. The effect of diet supplementation and g-irradiation on dissimilation of low-quality roughages by ruminants. I. Studies on the terylene-bag technique and effects of supplementation of base ration. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 79: 27-40. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600025338]
23. Morales Castillo, E., M. Jal, E. Tandon and F.Y.R. Fernandez-Mirannde. 1991. Effect of irradiated diet on weight gain of broiler chicken. Revista Cubona de Ciencia Avicola, 18: 127 pp.
24. Murphy, T.A., F.L. Fluharty and S.C. Loerch. 1994. The influence of intake level and corn processing on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in steers fed all-concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Science, 72: 1608-1615. [DOI:10.2527/1994.7261608x]
25. National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th rev. ed. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC.
26. Nocek, J.E. and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3598-3629. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78552-4]
27. Orskov, E.R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rumen rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science-Cambridge, 92: 499-503. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600063048]
28. Pamp, B.W., M.L. Bauer and G.P. Lardy. 2004. The effect of rumen degradable and undegradable protein supplementation in barley-based high grain finishing diets on feedlot performance and carcass traits of beef steers. Journal of Animal Science, 82 (Suppl. 2), 97.
29. Reddy, S.L., M.H. Pubols and J. McGinnis. 1979. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 109: 1307-1312. [DOI:10.1093/jn/109.7.1307]
30. Reynolds, C.K., J.D. Sutton and D.E. Beever. 1997. Effects of feeding starch to dairy cattle on nutrient availability and production. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press. UK., pp: 105-134.
31. Sadeghi, A.A. and P. Shawrang. 2008. Effects of microwave irradiation on ruminal dry matter, protein and starch degradation characteristics of barley grain. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 141: 184-194. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.05.034]
32. SAS Institute. 2000. SAS/STAT user's guide. SAS Institute Inc, Cary.
33. Shawrang, P., A. Nikkhah, A. Zare-Shahneh, A.A. Sadeghi, G. Raisali and M.M. Moradi-Shahrbabak. 2007. Effects of gamma irradiation on protein degradation of soybean meal in the rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 134: 140-151. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.05.019]
34. Stern, M.D., A. Bach and S. Calsamiglia. 1997. Alternative techniques for measuring nutrient digestion in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 75: 22-56. [DOI:10.2527/1997.7582256x]
35. Taghinezhad-Roodbeneh, M. 2009. Study the effect of physical processing (gamma irradiation, Microwave and toasting) on degradation rate and digestibility of soybean and cottonseeds protein. Ph.D. Thesis of Tehran science and research Azad University, 126 pp (In Persian).
36. Van Keulen, J. and B.A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science, 44: 282-295. [DOI:10.2527/jas1977.442282x]
37. Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583-3598. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2]
38. Zinn, R.A., R. Barrajas, M. Montano and R.A. Ware. 2003. Influence of dietary urea level on digestive function and growth performance of cattle fed steam flaked barley-based finishing diets. Journal of Animal Science, 81: 2383-2389. [DOI:10.2527/2003.81102383x]
39. Akbarian, A., G.R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, P. Shawrang and M. Dehghan-banadaki. 2009. Performance and physiological responses of holstein lactating cows to whole soybean treated with physical processing. Master of Science thesis of industrial university of Isfahan. 126 pp (In Persian).
40. Al-Masri, M.R. 1999. In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 50: 295-301. [DOI:10.1016/S0969-8043(98)00013-X]
41. Arieli, A., I. Bruckental, O. Kedar and D. Sklan. 1995. In Sacco disappearance of starch nitrogen and fat in processed grains. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 51: 287-295. [DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(94)00693-4]
42. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis (15th edition). Association of official. Analytical chemists, Arlington, VA.
43. Ciesla, K. 2003. Gamma irradiation influence on wheat flour gelatinization. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 74: 254-259. [DOI:10.1023/A:1026302508712]
44. Ciesla, K., E. Gwardys and T. 'Zoltowski. 1991. Changes of relative crystallinity of potato starch under gamma irradiation. Starch/Starke, 43: 251-253. [DOI:10.1002/star.19910430702]
45. Cone, J.W., W. Cline-Theil, A. Malestein and A.T. Van't Klooster. 1989. Degradation of starch by incubation with rumen fluid. A comparison of different starch source. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 49: 173-183. [DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2740490206]
46. Cooper, R.J., C.T. Milton, T.J. Klopfenstein and D.J. Jordon. 2002. Effect of corn processing on degradable intake protein requirement of finishing cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 80: 242-247. [DOI:10.2527/2002.801242x]
47. Cornell, H.J., A.W. Hoveling, A. Chryss and M. Rogers. 1994. Particle size distribution in wheat starch and its importance in processing. Starch, 46: 203-207. [DOI:10.1002/star.19940460602]
48. Daghir, N.J., J.L. Sell and G.G. Mateos. 1983. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of lentil (Lens cilinaris) for chicks. Nutrition Reports International, 27: 1087-1093.
49. Grummer, R.R., M.L. Luck and J.A. Barmore. 1994. Lactational performance of dairy cows fed soybean with or without animal byproduct protein or roasted soybean. Journal of Dairy Science, 77: 1354-1359. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77074-0]
50. Gulati, S.K., M.R. Garg and T.W. Scott. 2005. Rumen protected protein and fat produced from oilseeds and/or meals by formaldehyde treatment; their role in ruminant production and product quality; a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 45: 1189-1203. [DOI:10.1071/EA04131]
51. Holm, N.W and R.J. Berry. 1970. Manual on radiation dosimetry. Dekker, New York, USA.
52. Jaffari-Foroshani, M. 2010. Effects of electron beam irradiation on DM and CP degradation rate of soybean and canola meal and performance of Holstein dairy cows. M.Sc. thesis of industrial university of Isfahan, 70 pp (In Persian).
53. Javaid, A., M.A. Shahzad, M. Nisa and M. Sarwar. 2011. Ruminal dynamics of ad libitum feeding in buffalo bulls receiving different level of rumen degradable protein. Livestock Science, 135: 98-102. [DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.133]
54. Joseph, A. and M. Dikshit. 1993. Effect of irradiation on the proteinase inhibitor activity and digestibility (in vitro) of safflower oilcake. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society, 70: 935-937. [DOI:10.1007/BF02545359]
55. Lawton, E.J., W.D. Bellamy, R.E. Hungate, M.P. Bryant and E. Hall. 1951. Some effects of high velocity electrons on wood. Science, 113: 380-382. [DOI:10.1126/science.113.2936.380]
56. Lee, Y.S., S.H. Oh, J.W. Lee, J.H. Kim, D.S. Kim and M.W. Byun. 2003. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical and textural properties of starches. Food Science and Biotechnology, 12: 508-512.
57. Malcom, K.J. and H.E. Kiesling. 1993. Dry matter disappearance and gelatinization of grains as influenced by processing and conditioning. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 40: 321-330. [DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(93)90061-N]
58. Mani, V. and P. Chandra. 2002. Effect of different levels of irradiation of soybean in Sacco DM and CP degradability of DM and CP. Indian Journal Animal Nutrition, 12: 51-56.
59. Mani, V. and P. Chandra. 2003. Effect of feeding irradiated soybean on nutrient intake, digestibility and N-balance in goats. Small Ruminant Research, 48: 77-81. [DOI:10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00249-3]
60. McMannus, W.R., L. Manta, J.D. McFarlane and A.C. Gray. 1972. The effect of diet supplementation and g-irradiation on dissimilation of low-quality roughages by ruminants. I. Studies on the terylene-bag technique and effects of supplementation of base ration. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 79: 27-40. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600025338]
61. Morales Castillo, E., M. Jal, E. Tandon and F.Y.R. Fernandez-Mirannde. 1991. Effect of irradiated diet on weight gain of broiler chicken. Revista Cubona de Ciencia Avicola, 18: 127 pp.
62. Murphy, T.A., F.L. Fluharty and S.C. Loerch. 1994. The influence of intake level and corn processing on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in steers fed all-concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Science, 72: 1608-1615. [DOI:10.2527/1994.7261608x]
63. National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th rev. ed. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC.
64. Nocek, J.E. and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3598-3629. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78552-4]
65. Orskov, E.R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rumen rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science-Cambridge, 92: 499-503. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600063048]
66. Pamp, B.W., M.L. Bauer and G.P. Lardy. 2004. The effect of rumen degradable and undegradable protein supplementation in barley-based high grain finishing diets on feedlot performance and carcass traits of beef steers. Journal of Animal Science, 82 (Suppl. 2), 97.
67. Reddy, S.L., M.H. Pubols and J. McGinnis. 1979. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 109: 1307-1312. [DOI:10.1093/jn/109.7.1307]
68. Reynolds, C.K., J.D. Sutton and D.E. Beever. 1997. Effects of feeding starch to dairy cattle on nutrient availability and production. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press. UK., pp: 105-134.
69. Sadeghi, A.A. and P. Shawrang. 2008. Effects of microwave irradiation on ruminal dry matter, protein and starch degradation characteristics of barley grain. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 141: 184-194. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.05.034]
70. SAS Institute. 2000. SAS/STAT user's guide. SAS Institute Inc, Cary.
71. Shawrang, P., A. Nikkhah, A. Zare-Shahneh, A.A. Sadeghi, G. Raisali and M.M. Moradi-Shahrbabak. 2007. Effects of gamma irradiation on protein degradation of soybean meal in the rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 134: 140-151. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.05.019]
72. Stern, M.D., A. Bach and S. Calsamiglia. 1997. Alternative techniques for measuring nutrient digestion in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 75: 22-56. [DOI:10.2527/1997.7582256x]
73. Taghinezhad-Roodbeneh, M. 2009. Study the effect of physical processing (gamma irradiation, Microwave and toasting) on degradation rate and digestibility of soybean and cottonseeds protein. Ph.D. Thesis of Tehran science and research Azad University, 126 pp (In Persian).
74. Van Keulen, J. and B.A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science, 44: 282-295. [DOI:10.2527/jas1977.442282x]
75. Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583-3598. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2]
76. Zinn, R.A., R. Barrajas, M. Montano and R.A. Ware. 2003. Influence of dietary urea level on digestive function and growth performance of cattle fed steam flaked barley-based finishing diets. Journal of Animal Science, 81: 2383-2389. [DOI:10.2527/2003.81102383x]

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