Volume 8, Issue 15 (6-2017)                   rap 2017, 8(15): 58-67 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Effects of Different Level of Gamma Irradiation on Barley and Soybean Seeds on Rumen Degradation Rate and Performance of Lambs. rap. 2017; 8 (15) :58-67
URL: http://rap.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-757-en.html
Abstract:   (1199 Views)

To investigate the effects of different levels of gamma irradiation on degradation rate of barley and soybean seeds and performance of lambs, this study were done. In the first experiment barley and soybean seeds were irradiated with 2 doses of gamma irradiation and degradation rate were estimated in different incubation times.  Results of current study showed that gamma irradiation increased the “a” fraction and decreased “b” fraction of barley DM, but “a” fraction of barley crude protein was decreased and “b” fraction was increased (P<0.05). Gamma irradiation on soybean seed decreased “a” fraction of crude protein and DM of soybean and increased “b” fraction of CP and DM of soybean seeds. Second experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 6 replications on Dallagh lambs. Treatments were untreated barley and soybean seeds, irradiated barley and soybean seeds with 50 and 75 KGy. Lambs were housed in individual cage about 120 days. To digestibility determination, fecal samplings were done. At the end of experiment 3 lambs from each treatment were slaughtered. Lamb carcasses and internal organs (including the liver, lungs, heart and kidneys) were also measured separately. All the data were analyses with SAS program and the means were compared with Tukey test. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between treatments and control group in feed consumption (P>0.05). Weight gain was significantly affected by irradiation treatments. Gamma irradiation with dose of 75 KGy significantly improved feed conversion ratio (P<0.05). Gamma irradiation significantly improved dry matter and organic matter digestibility of feeds (P<0.05). Internal organs were not affected by gamma irradiation (P>0.05). Regard to the results of current study, 50 KGy gamma irradiation has significant effects on by pass of protein resources and use of starch in the diets. Thus, we can use irradiation to get the better performance in ruminant nutrition.

Full-Text [PDF 551 kb]   (499 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/06/17 | Revised: 2017/08/27 | Accepted: 2017/06/17 | Published: 2017/06/17

References
1. Akbarian, A., G.R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, P. Shawrang and M. Dehghan-banadaki. 2009. Performance and physiological responses of holstein lactating cows to whole soybean treated with physical processing. Master of Science thesis of industrial university of Isfahan. 126 pp (In Persian).
2. Al-Masri, M.R. 1999. In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 50: 295-301. [DOI:10.1016/S0969-8043(98)00013-X]
3. Arieli, A., I. Bruckental, O. Kedar and D. Sklan. 1995. In Sacco disappearance of starch nitrogen and fat in processed grains. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 51: 287-295. [DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(94)00693-4]
4. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis (15th edition). Association of official. Analytical chemists, Arlington, VA.
5. Ciesla, K. 2003. Gamma irradiation influence on wheat flour gelatinization. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 74: 254-259. [DOI:10.1023/A:1026302508712]
6. Ciesla, K., E. Gwardys and T. 'Zoltowski. 1991. Changes of relative crystallinity of potato starch under gamma irradiation. Starch/Starke, 43: 251-253. [DOI:10.1002/star.19910430702]
7. Cone, J.W., W. Cline-Theil, A. Malestein and A.T. Van't Klooster. 1989. Degradation of starch by incubation with rumen fluid. A comparison of different starch source. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 49: 173-183. [DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2740490206]
8. Cooper, R.J., C.T. Milton, T.J. Klopfenstein and D.J. Jordon. 2002. Effect of corn processing on degradable intake protein requirement of finishing cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 80: 242-247. [DOI:10.2527/2002.801242x]
9. Cornell, H.J., A.W. Hoveling, A. Chryss and M. Rogers. 1994. Particle size distribution in wheat starch and its importance in processing. Starch, 46: 203-207. [DOI:10.1002/star.19940460602]
10. Daghir, N.J., J.L. Sell and G.G. Mateos. 1983. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of lentil (Lens cilinaris) for chicks. Nutrition Reports International, 27: 1087-1093.
11. Grummer, R.R., M.L. Luck and J.A. Barmore. 1994. Lactational performance of dairy cows fed soybean with or without animal byproduct protein or roasted soybean. Journal of Dairy Science, 77: 1354-1359. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77074-0]
12. Gulati, S.K., M.R. Garg and T.W. Scott. 2005. Rumen protected protein and fat produced from oilseeds and/or meals by formaldehyde treatment; their role in ruminant production and product quality; a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 45: 1189-1203. [DOI:10.1071/EA04131]
13. Holm, N.W and R.J. Berry. 1970. Manual on radiation dosimetry. Dekker, New York, USA.
14. Jaffari-Foroshani, M. 2010. Effects of electron beam irradiation on DM and CP degradation rate of soybean and canola meal and performance of Holstein dairy cows. M.Sc. thesis of industrial university of Isfahan, 70 pp (In Persian).
15. Javaid, A., M.A. Shahzad, M. Nisa and M. Sarwar. 2011. Ruminal dynamics of ad libitum feeding in buffalo bulls receiving different level of rumen degradable protein. Livestock Science, 135: 98-102. [DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.133]
16. Joseph, A. and M. Dikshit. 1993. Effect of irradiation on the proteinase inhibitor activity and digestibility (in vitro) of safflower oilcake. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society, 70: 935-937. [DOI:10.1007/BF02545359]
17. Lawton, E.J., W.D. Bellamy, R.E. Hungate, M.P. Bryant and E. Hall. 1951. Some effects of high velocity electrons on wood. Science, 113: 380-382. [DOI:10.1126/science.113.2936.380]
18. Lee, Y.S., S.H. Oh, J.W. Lee, J.H. Kim, D.S. Kim and M.W. Byun. 2003. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical and textural properties of starches. Food Science and Biotechnology, 12: 508-512.
19. Malcom, K.J. and H.E. Kiesling. 1993. Dry matter disappearance and gelatinization of grains as influenced by processing and conditioning. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 40: 321-330. [DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(93)90061-N]
20. Mani, V. and P. Chandra. 2002. Effect of different levels of irradiation of soybean in Sacco DM and CP degradability of DM and CP. Indian Journal Animal Nutrition, 12: 51-56.
21. Mani, V. and P. Chandra. 2003. Effect of feeding irradiated soybean on nutrient intake, digestibility and N-balance in goats. Small Ruminant Research, 48: 77-81. [DOI:10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00249-3]
22. McMannus, W.R., L. Manta, J.D. McFarlane and A.C. Gray. 1972. The effect of diet supplementation and g-irradiation on dissimilation of low-quality roughages by ruminants. I. Studies on the terylene-bag technique and effects of supplementation of base ration. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 79: 27-40. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600025338]
23. Morales Castillo, E., M. Jal, E. Tandon and F.Y.R. Fernandez-Mirannde. 1991. Effect of irradiated diet on weight gain of broiler chicken. Revista Cubona de Ciencia Avicola, 18: 127 pp.
24. Murphy, T.A., F.L. Fluharty and S.C. Loerch. 1994. The influence of intake level and corn processing on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in steers fed all-concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Science, 72: 1608-1615. [DOI:10.2527/1994.7261608x]
25. National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th rev. ed. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC.
26. Nocek, J.E. and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3598-3629. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78552-4]
27. Orskov, E.R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rumen rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science-Cambridge, 92: 499-503. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600063048]
28. Pamp, B.W., M.L. Bauer and G.P. Lardy. 2004. The effect of rumen degradable and undegradable protein supplementation in barley-based high grain finishing diets on feedlot performance and carcass traits of beef steers. Journal of Animal Science, 82 (Suppl. 2), 97.
29. Reddy, S.L., M.H. Pubols and J. McGinnis. 1979. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 109: 1307-1312. [DOI:10.1093/jn/109.7.1307]
30. Reynolds, C.K., J.D. Sutton and D.E. Beever. 1997. Effects of feeding starch to dairy cattle on nutrient availability and production. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press. UK., pp: 105-134.
31. Sadeghi, A.A. and P. Shawrang. 2008. Effects of microwave irradiation on ruminal dry matter, protein and starch degradation characteristics of barley grain. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 141: 184-194. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.05.034]
32. SAS Institute. 2000. SAS/STAT user's guide. SAS Institute Inc, Cary.
33. Shawrang, P., A. Nikkhah, A. Zare-Shahneh, A.A. Sadeghi, G. Raisali and M.M. Moradi-Shahrbabak. 2007. Effects of gamma irradiation on protein degradation of soybean meal in the rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 134: 140-151. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.05.019]
34. Stern, M.D., A. Bach and S. Calsamiglia. 1997. Alternative techniques for measuring nutrient digestion in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 75: 22-56. [DOI:10.2527/1997.7582256x]
35. Taghinezhad-Roodbeneh, M. 2009. Study the effect of physical processing (gamma irradiation, Microwave and toasting) on degradation rate and digestibility of soybean and cottonseeds protein. Ph.D. Thesis of Tehran science and research Azad University, 126 pp (In Persian).
36. Van Keulen, J. and B.A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science, 44: 282-295. [DOI:10.2527/jas1977.442282x]
37. Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583-3598. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2]
38. Zinn, R.A., R. Barrajas, M. Montano and R.A. Ware. 2003. Influence of dietary urea level on digestive function and growth performance of cattle fed steam flaked barley-based finishing diets. Journal of Animal Science, 81: 2383-2389. [DOI:10.2527/2003.81102383x]
39. Akbarian, A., G.R. Ghorbani, M. Khorvash, P. Shawrang and M. Dehghan-banadaki. 2009. Performance and physiological responses of holstein lactating cows to whole soybean treated with physical processing. Master of Science thesis of industrial university of Isfahan. 126 pp (In Persian).
40. Al-Masri, M.R. 1999. In vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues as influenced by gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 50: 295-301. [DOI:10.1016/S0969-8043(98)00013-X]
41. Arieli, A., I. Bruckental, O. Kedar and D. Sklan. 1995. In Sacco disappearance of starch nitrogen and fat in processed grains. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 51: 287-295. [DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(94)00693-4]
42. AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis (15th edition). Association of official. Analytical chemists, Arlington, VA.
43. Ciesla, K. 2003. Gamma irradiation influence on wheat flour gelatinization. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 74: 254-259. [DOI:10.1023/A:1026302508712]
44. Ciesla, K., E. Gwardys and T. 'Zoltowski. 1991. Changes of relative crystallinity of potato starch under gamma irradiation. Starch/Starke, 43: 251-253. [DOI:10.1002/star.19910430702]
45. Cone, J.W., W. Cline-Theil, A. Malestein and A.T. Van't Klooster. 1989. Degradation of starch by incubation with rumen fluid. A comparison of different starch source. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 49: 173-183. [DOI:10.1002/jsfa.2740490206]
46. Cooper, R.J., C.T. Milton, T.J. Klopfenstein and D.J. Jordon. 2002. Effect of corn processing on degradable intake protein requirement of finishing cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 80: 242-247. [DOI:10.2527/2002.801242x]
47. Cornell, H.J., A.W. Hoveling, A. Chryss and M. Rogers. 1994. Particle size distribution in wheat starch and its importance in processing. Starch, 46: 203-207. [DOI:10.1002/star.19940460602]
48. Daghir, N.J., J.L. Sell and G.G. Mateos. 1983. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of lentil (Lens cilinaris) for chicks. Nutrition Reports International, 27: 1087-1093.
49. Grummer, R.R., M.L. Luck and J.A. Barmore. 1994. Lactational performance of dairy cows fed soybean with or without animal byproduct protein or roasted soybean. Journal of Dairy Science, 77: 1354-1359. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77074-0]
50. Gulati, S.K., M.R. Garg and T.W. Scott. 2005. Rumen protected protein and fat produced from oilseeds and/or meals by formaldehyde treatment; their role in ruminant production and product quality; a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 45: 1189-1203. [DOI:10.1071/EA04131]
51. Holm, N.W and R.J. Berry. 1970. Manual on radiation dosimetry. Dekker, New York, USA.
52. Jaffari-Foroshani, M. 2010. Effects of electron beam irradiation on DM and CP degradation rate of soybean and canola meal and performance of Holstein dairy cows. M.Sc. thesis of industrial university of Isfahan, 70 pp (In Persian).
53. Javaid, A., M.A. Shahzad, M. Nisa and M. Sarwar. 2011. Ruminal dynamics of ad libitum feeding in buffalo bulls receiving different level of rumen degradable protein. Livestock Science, 135: 98-102. [DOI:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.133]
54. Joseph, A. and M. Dikshit. 1993. Effect of irradiation on the proteinase inhibitor activity and digestibility (in vitro) of safflower oilcake. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society, 70: 935-937. [DOI:10.1007/BF02545359]
55. Lawton, E.J., W.D. Bellamy, R.E. Hungate, M.P. Bryant and E. Hall. 1951. Some effects of high velocity electrons on wood. Science, 113: 380-382. [DOI:10.1126/science.113.2936.380]
56. Lee, Y.S., S.H. Oh, J.W. Lee, J.H. Kim, D.S. Kim and M.W. Byun. 2003. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical and textural properties of starches. Food Science and Biotechnology, 12: 508-512.
57. Malcom, K.J. and H.E. Kiesling. 1993. Dry matter disappearance and gelatinization of grains as influenced by processing and conditioning. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 40: 321-330. [DOI:10.1016/0377-8401(93)90061-N]
58. Mani, V. and P. Chandra. 2002. Effect of different levels of irradiation of soybean in Sacco DM and CP degradability of DM and CP. Indian Journal Animal Nutrition, 12: 51-56.
59. Mani, V. and P. Chandra. 2003. Effect of feeding irradiated soybean on nutrient intake, digestibility and N-balance in goats. Small Ruminant Research, 48: 77-81. [DOI:10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00249-3]
60. McMannus, W.R., L. Manta, J.D. McFarlane and A.C. Gray. 1972. The effect of diet supplementation and g-irradiation on dissimilation of low-quality roughages by ruminants. I. Studies on the terylene-bag technique and effects of supplementation of base ration. Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge), 79: 27-40. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600025338]
61. Morales Castillo, E., M. Jal, E. Tandon and F.Y.R. Fernandez-Mirannde. 1991. Effect of irradiated diet on weight gain of broiler chicken. Revista Cubona de Ciencia Avicola, 18: 127 pp.
62. Murphy, T.A., F.L. Fluharty and S.C. Loerch. 1994. The influence of intake level and corn processing on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in steers fed all-concentrate diets. Journal of Animal Science, 72: 1608-1615. [DOI:10.2527/1994.7261608x]
63. National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th rev. ed. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC.
64. Nocek, J.E. and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3598-3629. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78552-4]
65. Orskov, E.R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rumen rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science-Cambridge, 92: 499-503. [DOI:10.1017/S0021859600063048]
66. Pamp, B.W., M.L. Bauer and G.P. Lardy. 2004. The effect of rumen degradable and undegradable protein supplementation in barley-based high grain finishing diets on feedlot performance and carcass traits of beef steers. Journal of Animal Science, 82 (Suppl. 2), 97.
67. Reddy, S.L., M.H. Pubols and J. McGinnis. 1979. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 109: 1307-1312. [DOI:10.1093/jn/109.7.1307]
68. Reynolds, C.K., J.D. Sutton and D.E. Beever. 1997. Effects of feeding starch to dairy cattle on nutrient availability and production. Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. Nottingham University Press. UK., pp: 105-134.
69. Sadeghi, A.A. and P. Shawrang. 2008. Effects of microwave irradiation on ruminal dry matter, protein and starch degradation characteristics of barley grain. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 141: 184-194. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.05.034]
70. SAS Institute. 2000. SAS/STAT user's guide. SAS Institute Inc, Cary.
71. Shawrang, P., A. Nikkhah, A. Zare-Shahneh, A.A. Sadeghi, G. Raisali and M.M. Moradi-Shahrbabak. 2007. Effects of gamma irradiation on protein degradation of soybean meal in the rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 134: 140-151. [DOI:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.05.019]
72. Stern, M.D., A. Bach and S. Calsamiglia. 1997. Alternative techniques for measuring nutrient digestion in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 75: 22-56. [DOI:10.2527/1997.7582256x]
73. Taghinezhad-Roodbeneh, M. 2009. Study the effect of physical processing (gamma irradiation, Microwave and toasting) on degradation rate and digestibility of soybean and cottonseeds protein. Ph.D. Thesis of Tehran science and research Azad University, 126 pp (In Persian).
74. Van Keulen, J. and B.A. Young. 1977. Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash as a natural marker in ruminant digestibility studies. Journal of Animal Science, 44: 282-295. [DOI:10.2527/jas1977.442282x]
75. Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583-3598. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2]
76. Zinn, R.A., R. Barrajas, M. Montano and R.A. Ware. 2003. Influence of dietary urea level on digestive function and growth performance of cattle fed steam flaked barley-based finishing diets. Journal of Animal Science, 81: 2383-2389. [DOI:10.2527/2003.81102383x]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

© 2019 All Rights Reserved | Research On Animal Production(Scientific and Research)

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb