دوره 8، شماره 16 - ( تابستان 1396 )                   جلد 8 شماره 16 صفحات 94-102 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها


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The Effects of Different Levels of Lemon Pulp Consumption and Reduction of Energy and Protein of Diet on Growth Related Hormones, Blood Parameters and Performance of Broiler Chickens. rap. 2017; 8 (16) :94-102
URL: http://rap.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-809-fa.html
رضوی نادر، وحدت پور توحید، ابراهیم نژاد یحیی. اثرات مصرف سطوح مختلف تفاله لیموترش و کاهش انرژی و پروتئین جیره بر هورمون‌های مربوط به رشد، فراسنجه‌های خون و عملکرد جوجه‌های گوشتی . پژوهشهاي توليدات دامي. 1396; 8 (16) :94-102

URL: http://rap.sanru.ac.ir/article-1-809-fa.html


چکیده:   (961 مشاهده)
     هدف از انجام این مطالعه، بررسی اثرات کاهش انرژی و پروتئین جیره با استفاده از سطوح مختلف تفاله لیموترش بر هورمون‌های مربوط به رشد، فراسنجه‌های خون و عملکرد جوجه‌های گوشتی بود. در مجموع تعداد 240 قطعه جوجه گوشتی یک‌روزه از سویه راس ­308 در یک طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 4 تیمار) 4 تکرار  و در هر تکرار با 15 قطعه) قرار داده شدند. تیمارها به ترتیب حاوی صفر، 4، 8 و 12 درصد تفاله لیموترش بودند. در انتهای آزمایش، صفات عملکردی محاسبه و پس از جداسازی سرم از نمونه ­های خون، هورمون‌ها به روش الایزا و شاخص ­های بیوشیمیایی خون با سیستم اتو­آنالایزر اندازه ­گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که جیره ­های حاوی تفاله مرکبات باعث کاهش وزن جوجه‌ها در انتهای دوره­ های آغازین و پایانی شد (05/0>P). هم‌چنین، مصرف سطوح مختلف تفاله‌ در جیره باعث کاهش بازده لاشه، وزن سینه و چربی ناحیه شکمی شد (05/0>P). مصرف تفاله لیموترش باعث کاهش کلسترول، تری‌گلیسریدها، لیپوپروتئین با چگالی کم و افزایش لیپوپروتئین با چگالی زیاد در خون جوجه‌های گوشتی شد (05/0>P). مصرف تفاله لیموترش تأثیر معنی­داری بر سطح هورمون­ های رشد و انسولین خون نداشت، اما باعث کاهش ترشح هورمون تیروکسین شد (05/0>P) که این
می­تواند باعث کاهش متابولیسم پایه بدن و علت کاهش رشد باشد
. در این تحقیق به جهت کنترل دقیق سالن محل انجام آزمایش و رعایت نکات بهداشتی، تلفاتی در هیچ کدام از تیمارهای آزمایشی وجود نداشت. اما بر اساس تاثیرات مثبت و معنی­دار مصرف تفاله لیموترش بر شاخص­ های متابولیکی- لیپیدی خون و کاهش چربی ناحیه شکمی، می ­توان نتیجه گرفت که در شرایط مزرعه ­ای می­ توان با استفاده از سطوح کم تفاله لیموترش ضمن کاهش نسبی تراکم انرژی و پروتئین جیره و کنترل سرعت رشد در جوجه ­های گوشتی، از بروز ناهنجاری­ های متابولیکی مربوط به سرعت رشد زیاد، جلوگیری و باعث ارتقای سلامت پرندگان ­شد.
متن کامل [PDF 467 kb]   (1214 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: پژوهشي | موضوع مقاله: تخصصي
دریافت: ۱۳۹۶/۸/۸ | ویرایش نهایی: ۱۳۹۶/۸/۹ | پذیرش: ۱۳۹۶/۸/۸ | انتشار: ۱۳۹۶/۸/۸

فهرست منابع
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2. Baig, M.M. and J.J. Cerda. 1981. Pectin: Its interaction with serum lipoproteins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34: 50-53. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/34.1.50]
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4. Bolton, R.P., K.W. Heaton and L.F. Burroughs. 1981. The role of dietary fiber in satiety, glucose, and insulin: studies with fruit and fruit juice. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34: 211-217. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/34.2.211]
5. Chowdhury, S.R., S.D. Chowdhury and T.K. Smith. 2003. Effects of dietary garlic on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens. Poultry Science, 81: 1856-1862. [DOI:10.1093/ps/81.12.1856]
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13. Langhout, D.J. 1998. The role of the intestinal flora as affected by non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chicks. PhD Thesis Agricultural University of Wageningen, the Netherlands, 14: 1114-1122.
14. Langhout, D.J., J.B. Schutte, P. Van Leeuwen, J. Wiebenga and S. Tamminga. 1999. Effect of dietary high- and lowmethylated citrus pectin on the activity of the ileal microflora and morphology of the small intestinal wall of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science, 40: 340-347. [DOI:10.1080/00071669987421]
15. Leeson, S. and A.K. Zubair. 1997. Nutrition of the broiler chicken around the period of compensatory growth. Poultry Science, 76: 992-999. [DOI:10.1093/ps/76.7.992]
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23. Ross, J.K. and J.E. Leklem. 1981. The effect of dietary citrus pectin on the excretion of human fecal neutral and acid steroids and the activity of 7-alpha-dehydroxylase and beta-glucuronidase American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34: 2068-2077. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/34.10.2068]
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26. Selvendran, R.R. 1978. Bile salt binding sites in vegetable fiber. Chem. and Ind., 12: 428-430.
27. Shiraishi, J.I., K. Yanagita, R. Fukumori, T. Sugi, M. Fujita, S.I. Kawakami, J.P. Mc Murtry and T. Bungo. 2011. Comparisons of insulin related parameters in commercial-type chicks: Evidence for insulin resistance in broiler chicks. Physiology & Behavior, 103: 233-239. [DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.02.008]
28. Summers, J.D., D. Spratt and J.L. Atkinson. 1992. Broiler weight gain and carcass composition when fed diets varying in amino acid balance, dietary energy, and protein level. Poultry Science, 71: 263-273. [DOI:10.3382/ps.0710263]
29. Tabook, N.M., I.T. Kadim, O. Mahgoub and W. Al-Marzooqi. 2006. The effect of date fiber supplemented with an exogenous enzyme on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 47: 73-82. [DOI:10.1080/00071660500475160]
30. Van Der Klis, J.D., A. Van Voorst and C. Van Cruyningen. 1993. Effect of a soluble polysaccharide (carboxymethyl cellulose) on the physicochemical conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. British Poultry Science, 34: 971-983. [DOI:10.1080/00071669308417657]
31. Voragen, A.G.J., G. Beldman and H. Schols. 2001. Chemistry and enzymology of pectins. Advanced Dietary Fiber Technologies B. V. McCleary and L. Prosky, ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 379-398.
32. Wilson, S.B., D.W. Back, S.M. Morris, J. Swierczynski and A.G. Goodridge. 1986. Hormonal regulation of lipogenic enzymes in chick embryo hepatocytes in culture. Expression of the fatty acid synthase gene is regulated at both translational and pre-translational steps. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261: 15179-15182.
33. Agu, P.N. and O.I.A. Oluremi .2010. Nutritional evaluation of sweet orange (Citrus silences) fruit peel as a feed resource in broiler production. Poultry Science, 9: 684-688. [DOI:10.3923/ijps.2010.684.688]
34. Baig, M.M. and J.J. Cerda. 1981. Pectin: Its interaction with serum lipoproteins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34: 50-53. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/34.1.50]
35. Baker, R.A. 1994. Potential dietary benefits of citrus pectin and fiber. Food Technology, 48: 133-139.
36. Bolton, R.P., K.W. Heaton and L.F. Burroughs. 1981. The role of dietary fiber in satiety, glucose, and insulin: studies with fruit and fruit juice. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34: 211-217. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/34.2.211]
37. Chowdhury, S.R., S.D. Chowdhury and T.K. Smith. 2003. Effects of dietary garlic on cholesterol metabolism in laying hens. Poultry Science, 81: 1856-1862. [DOI:10.1093/ps/81.12.1856]
38. Edwards, C.A. 1995. The physiological effects of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber in health and disease, 58–71.
39. El-Boushy, A.R.Y. and A.F.B. Van Der Poel. 1994. Poultry feed from waste. Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 120-127. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4615-2654-4]
40. 8. Fabris, N., E. Mocchegiani and M. Provinciali. 1995. Pituitarythyroid axis and immune system: A reciprocal neuroendocrine- immune interaction. Hormone Research, 43: 29-38.
41. Frank, A., H. Hans and A. Earth. 2010. Effects of oral and intracecal pectin administration on blood lipids in minipigs. British Poultry Science, 30: 745-754.
42. Jamroz, D., R. Bodkowski and A. Patkowska- Sokota. 2004. Plant extracts-biological active substances in animal nutrition. Polskie Drobiarstwo, 6: 27-30.
43. Kanter, Y. N. Eitan, G. Brook and D. Barzilai. 1980. Improved glucose tolerance and insulin response in obese and diabetic patients on a fiber-enriched diet. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 16: 1-6.
44. Langhout, D.J. and J.B. Schutte. 1996. Nutritional implications of pectins in chicks in relation to esterification and origin of pectins. Poultry Science, 75: 1236-1242. [DOI:10.3382/ps.0751236]
45. Langhout, D.J. 1998. The role of the intestinal flora as affected by non-starch polysaccharides in broiler chicks. PhD Thesis Agricultural University of Wageningen, the Netherlands, 14: 1114-1122.
46. Langhout, D.J., J.B. Schutte, P. Van Leeuwen, J. Wiebenga and S. Tamminga. 1999. Effect of dietary high- and lowmethylated citrus pectin on the activity of the ileal microflora and morphology of the small intestinal wall of broiler chicks. British Poultry Science, 40: 340-347. [DOI:10.1080/00071669987421]
47. Leeson, S. and A.K. Zubair. 1997. Nutrition of the broiler chicken around the period of compensatory growth. Poultry Science, 76: 992-999. [DOI:10.1093/ps/76.7.992]
48. Levitt, N.S., A.I. Vinik, A.A. Sive, P.T. Child and W.P. Jackson. 1980. The effect of dietary fiber on glucose and hormone.abstract, 101.
49. Mathlouthi, N., M. Serge, L. Saulnier, B. Quemener and M. Larbier. 2002. Effects of xylanase and β-glucanase addition on performance, nutrient digestibility and physico-chemical conditions in the small intestine contents and caecal microflora of broiler chickens fed a wheat and barley-based diet. Animal Research, 51: 395-406. [DOI:10.1051/animres:2002034]
50. Mourao, J.L., V.M. Pinheiro, J.A.M. Prates, R.J.B. Bessa, L.M.A. Ferreir, C.M.G. Fontes and P.I.P. Pontet. 2008. Effect of dietary dehydrated pasture and citrus pulp on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Journal Poultry Science, 87: 733-743. [DOI:10.3382/ps.2007-00411]
51. NRC, 1994. National research council. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th Revised Edition. National Academic Press, Washington, DC. USA.
52. Oluremi, O.I.A., V.O. Ojighen and E.H. Ejembi. 2006. The nutritive potentials of Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) rind in broiler production. Int. Journal Poultry Science, 5: 613-617. [DOI:10.3923/ijps.2006.613.617]
53. Petersen, S.T., J. Wiseman and M.R. Bedford. 1999. The effect of age and diet on the viscosity of intestinal contents in broiler chicks. British Poultry Science, 40: 364-370. [DOI:10.1080/00071669987467]
54. Rabayaa, E., J.M. Aboomar and R.A. Othman. 2001. Utilization of olive pulp in broiler rations. An-Najah Univ. Journal of Research, 15: 134-144.
55. Ross, J.K. and J.E. Leklem. 1981. The effect of dietary citrus pectin on the excretion of human fecal neutral and acid steroids and the activity of 7-alpha-dehydroxylase and beta-glucuronidase American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34: 2068-2077. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/34.10.2068]
56. SAS institute Inc. 2001. SAS/STAT user's Guide: Statistic. Version 8.2, SAS Institute lnc. CARY, NC, USA.
57. Schwartz, S.E., R.A. Levine, R.S. Weinstock, S. Petokas, C.A. Mills and F.D. Thomas. 1988. Sustained pectin ingestion: Effect on gastric emptying and glucose tolerance in non-insulin- dependent diabetic patients. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48:1413-1417. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/48.6.1413]
58. Selvendran, R.R. 1978. Bile salt binding sites in vegetable fiber. Chem. and Ind., 12: 428-430.
59. Shiraishi, J.I., K. Yanagita, R. Fukumori, T. Sugi, M. Fujita, S.I. Kawakami, J.P. Mc Murtry and T. Bungo. 2011. Comparisons of insulin related parameters in commercial-type chicks: Evidence for insulin resistance in broiler chicks. Physiology & Behavior, 103: 233-239. [DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.02.008]
60. Summers, J.D., D. Spratt and J.L. Atkinson. 1992. Broiler weight gain and carcass composition when fed diets varying in amino acid balance, dietary energy, and protein level. Poultry Science, 71: 263-273. [DOI:10.3382/ps.0710263]
61. Tabook, N.M., I.T. Kadim, O. Mahgoub and W. Al-Marzooqi. 2006. The effect of date fiber supplemented with an exogenous enzyme on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. British Poultry Science, 47: 73-82. [DOI:10.1080/00071660500475160]
62. Van Der Klis, J.D., A. Van Voorst and C. Van Cruyningen. 1993. Effect of a soluble polysaccharide (carboxymethyl cellulose) on the physicochemical conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. British Poultry Science, 34: 971-983. [DOI:10.1080/00071669308417657]
63. Voragen, A.G.J., G. Beldman and H. Schols. 2001. Chemistry and enzymology of pectins. Advanced Dietary Fiber Technologies B. V. McCleary and L. Prosky, ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 379-398.
64. Wilson, S.B., D.W. Back, S.M. Morris, J. Swierczynski and A.G. Goodridge. 1986. Hormonal regulation of lipogenic enzymes in chick embryo hepatocytes in culture. Expression of the fatty acid synthase gene is regulated at both translational and pre-translational steps. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 261: 15179-15182.

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