دوره 9، شماره 19 - ( بهار 1397 )                   جلد 9 شماره 19 صفحات 54-62 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها

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دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی ساری
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     انتخاب در جهت افزایش فراوانی جهش­های جدیدی که در برخی از جمعیت­ها مفید هستند باعث به جا گذاشتن نشانه­هایی در سطح ژنوم می­شوند. از آنجایی که این مناطق غالبا صفات مهم اقتصادی را کنترل می­نمایند، در نتیجه شناسایی و ردیابی این مناطق از موضوعات مهم در مباحث ژنتیک حیوانی به حساب می­آید. هدف از انجام این تحقیق ردیابی نشانه­های انتخاب در سطح ژنوم در جمعیت اسب نژاد ترکمن با استفاده از 70000 نشانگر SNP بود. تعداد 23 رأس اسب نژاد ترکمن از مناطق مختلف گنبد کاووس انتخاب، بعد از خون­گیری و استخراج DNA، تعیین ژنوتیپ شدند. جهت جستجوی نشانه­های انتخاب از آزمون­های مبتنی بر عدم تعادل پیوستگی (LD) شامل آزمون EHH  (هموزیگوسیتی هاپلوتیپی بسط داده شده) و iHS (رتبه­بندی هاپلوتایپ یکپارچه) استفاده شد. برای شناسایی مناطقی از ژنوم که دارای بیشترین نشانه­های انتخاب بودند از آماره iHS استفاده شد و در نهایت 6 منطقه ژنومی که در صدک 9/99 % کل ارزش­های iHS قرار داشتند به­عنوان مناطق کاندیدای نشانه انتخاب، انتخاب شدند. این مناطق در کروموزوم­های 5، 4، 7، 8، 9 و 10 قرار داشتند. نتایج آماره EHH به همراه بررسی دیاگرام ­های شاخه­ بندی هاپلوتیپی وجود نشانه ­های انتخاب در این مناطق ژنومی را تأیید کرد. براساس نتایج حاصله از آماره EHH در برخی از جایگاه­ها فرسایش LD با سرعت بیشتر (کروموزوم 7، 9 و 10) و در برخی جایگاه­ها به کندی (4، 5 و 8) اتفاق افتاده است به­ طوریکه آلل­های موجود روی کروموزوم­ های 4،5 و 8 دامنه طولانی از LD داشته و فراوانی آنها به ترتیب برابر با 43، 52 و 37 درصد بودند. بنابراین، این مناطق از ژنوم اسب ترکمن احتمالا هدف انتخاب مثبت بوده است.

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نوع مطالعه: پژوهشي | موضوع مقاله: ژنتیک و اصلاح نژاد دام

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